Tuesday, 8 April 2014

Critical Studies - Lecture Notes: Industrialization and innovation. - Part 1

So much for this being a weekly blog :)  Here's the first part of the critical studies notes that I've finally found the time to work into some semblance of order.  However I make no promises regarding accuracy and/or factual information.  Cite me at your own risk.
PART 1: Industrialization and innovation
PART 2: 19th Century New Zealand
PART 3: 19th Century Photography


  1. The Industrial Revolution:
    The transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. (from wikipedia)
    The 19th century was a period of great change in Europe. It was a time of revolutions. Both politically and artistically speaking.
    Terrible working conditions for people and children until Parnell pushed for an 8 hour working day. It is from this that we get Labor day - At least we do in New Zealand.

    Key events:
    1769: Steam engine (James Watt); became popular in 1780s
    1780s-1830s: Beginning of Industrial Revolution in Britain
    1806: Webster’s Dictionary published
    1814: Steam powered printing press developed
    1837-1901: Queen Victoria reigns
    1831: Electric motor
    1840: stamps used for the first time
    1840s: Railways built, spread
    1851: First World’s Fair in London (The Crystal Palace)
    1850s: Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species published
    1870: Telephone (Bell)
    1880: Electric light (Edison)
    1888: Kodak box camera
  2. The French revolution. (1789 - 1799)
  3. The cultural revolution
    A rise of consumerism and mass production which ties in with the new techniques being used in the industrial revolution.
    There was a huge divide between the classes with very little mixture between the two
  1. Impressionism:In the 19th century there was a shift in the way that paintings were created.  The Stone Breakers by Gustave Courbet (1849) is a prime example of this new style which, at the time was hated by the art critics who declared it be be ugly and immoral, which really was only ever going to get more people to go and see it because nothing draws a crowd like someone declaring that something is too terrible to allow the general public to see it.
  2. Who were the impressionists?Edouard Manet (1832 – 1883)Gustave Caillebotte (1848 – 1894)Claude Monet (1840 – 1926)Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)Pierre-August Renoir (1841-1919)Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917)
  3. The Pre-Raphaelite BrotherhoodMany of the members of this group were fascinated by medieval culture and believed that art was a spiritual matter.  They disliked the industrialized nature of the 19th century and their art is often whimsical and mystical in nature.
  4. Arts and Crafts movementThe movement worked to move away from the mass produced items and to restore the quality of everyday objects by bringing back the traditional methods of handmade craftsmanship.  They worked to improve working conditions of artisans and craftspeople as well as encouraging artistic collaboration amongst workers.
  5. Art NouveauAs a style it developed from ideas generated by the Arts and Crafts movement.Alphonse MuchaHenri Toulouse-LautrecTheophile Steinlen

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